Mastery of these topics that will ensure success

on the

Living Environment Regents Exam


1.      Design a controlled experiment


        Control vs. variable/experimental group

        What measurable data will you gather? (be specific height, mass, # of, amount of, etc.,)

        What will be kept constant in both groups? (control/experimental)


2.      Make, read and use GRAPHS


3.      Basic biochemistry

        pH/pH scale/indicators

        Amino acids/protein

        Simple sugars/glucose/polysaccharides


4.      Enzyme function/ StructureEnzyme/substrate specificity


        organic catalyst

        lock + key model


5.      Photosynthesis +Respiration (P+R)

        General reactions

        Glucose C6H12O6

        ATPs role

        Mitochondria, chloroplast


        O2 vs. CO2 role of both

        Relationship between P+R


6.      Cells, cell membrane, organelles

        Organelles to know = mitochondria, chloroplast, cilia, ribosome, cell wall

        Cell membrane (AKA plasma membrane)

      Recognize structure


      Know functions *including receptor sites!


7.      A. Nucleic acids

        organization in the nucleus = gene chromosomes nucleus

        DNA structure bases

B. Protein synthesis and function of DNA, mRNA, etc.,

        recognize diagram of translation at ribosome


8.      Genetic engineering/Genetic processes


        Selective breeding

        Gene splicing/ recombinant DNA Humulin/insulin production




9. Mitosis vs. Meiosis

        Know chromosome #s involved

        Know end result (function and purpose)

        Fertilization zygote Embryo


1n + 1n 2n many 2n


10. Human reproductive system

        Male + female plumbing

        Parts + functions

        Vasectomy/ tubal ligation


11. Human Body & systems / Life processes

        Basic description of systems (nervous, endocrine, circulatory, etc.,)

        Maintenance of homeostasis for each

        Malfunction of each/ example of a disease and symptom


12. Feedback Mechanisms (Homeostasis)

        Insulin and blood sugar level

        Stomates/guard cells


13. Disease/Vaccines

        Microbes, pathogens, antibodies, host, etc.,

        Explain vaccines

      What they are

      How they are made/tested

      How they work in the body

        Disruption of homeostasis


14. Evolutionary theories

        Homologous structures differences and similarities

        Common ancestry

        Other evidence (fossil, molecular, embryological)

        Darwin + be able to completely describe natural selection

        Evolutionary relationships +trees (cladograms)


15. Know Ecology VOCAB


16. Ecological Relatioships




        Scavengers/saprophytes/decomposers to others in the community


17. Food web

        All interactions

        Producers, consumers, herbivores, decomposers, etc.,



18. Ecological stable ecosystems/ succession



        What makes a stable ecosystem?


19. Effect of introducing foreign species into an environment

20. Impact of Human Activity BAD

        Global warming (CO2)

        Ozone depletion (O3)

        Loss of biodiversity

        Pollution water, air, land

        Loss of soil


        Acid rain sulfur and nitrogen



        Ecologically sound ways of repairing environment

        Biological controls

        Endangered species and wildlife conservation