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Nucleotide sequence of DNA-------->Amino Acid sequence of polypeptide-------->Shape of protein---------->Function of protein!!!!!

Biochemistry!

Unit 2 Review Sheet

This is not designed to replace your class notes and/or chapter outlines!!
although it will certainly help

Chapter 3 – Basic chemistry
      Organic vs. inorganic
      Most common elements in living things - CHON
      Compound vs. element
      Atoms vs. molecules
      Symbols
      Make up of an atom – protons neutrons electrons and where you find them
      Formulas – chemical/molecular, structural
      Covalent bonds
        How many does carbon make?

Chapter 4 – Important Biomolecules--> Macromolecule review info     

Know example molecules (as well as their function) of each category

Carbohydrates – Simple sugars and complex carbohydrates
                Ring structure
                Mono-, di-, and polysaccharides
                Recognize structural formula of glucose and what its for
                usually end in -ose
      Lipids – fats, oils and waxes
                Energy reserve, insulation and cell membrane component
               1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids = 1 lipid
      Nucleic acids
                Nucleotide = subunit (hence, polynucleotide)
               Nucleotide sequence codes for Amino Acid sequence in proteins
               DNA/RNA
               Double helix
      Protein
               General
                            Hold animal cells together
                            "work horses" of metabolism                         
                            Usually very large
                            Have specific shapes that allow them to function
                          Structural, hormones, antibodies, and enzymes
               Amino acids
                          Building blocks of proteins
                          20 different AA’s
                           Shape  of protein is determined by AA sequence

                                             SHAPE IS EVERYTHING!!!!!!

Base
sequence ====> (DNA)     
Amino acid sequence ====> (polypeptide) Protein shape ===> Protein function

Base sequence of DNA-------->Amino Acid sequence of polypeptide-------->Shape of protein---------->Function of protein!!!!!              

  Enzymes
                        Control metabolism
                        Organic catalysts ==>don't get used up in reactions
                        Names often end in –ase and indicate substrate
                        Enzyme action dependent on shape of enzyme
                        Active site - denaturation
                        Factors that effect enzyme rate
                                       temp and concentration - recognize graphs of each

Chemical Reactions
                       Know the basic layout: Reactants, conditions and products
                       Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.

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